Dr. Jack L. Arnold
I. Types of Temperament (Temperament Quiz)
A. Sanguine (Apostle Peter). An extrovert—friendly, enjoys people, experience-oriented. They make good salesmen, actors, and politicians and occasionally, they are good leaders.
B. Choleric (Apostle Paul). A hard-nosed person—hot, strong-willed, self-sufficient and independent, lacks compassion and is not sympathetic with the fine arts. They make good leaders but usually are domineering and opportunists who use people.
C. Melancholy (David). Gifted artists with possible genius traits—analytical, self-sacrificing, gifted, perfectionist, appreciative of fine arts, emotional and introspective. They usually do not make great leaders but make great artists, musicians, inventors, philosophers, educators, and theoreticians.
D. Phlegmatic (Abraham). A diplomat—calm, easy going, precise, well balanced indecisive, stubborn, dry sense of humor. Can make a good leader. They make a good diplomat, accountant, professor, scientist.
E. NOTE: All people are a combination of these temperaments, but usually one or two dominate in one’s personality. One must understand himself/herself as to temperament and this explains how the person works with people.
II. How One Handles Conflict (Conflict Quiz)
A. Aggressive/Confrontive. Likes to control others and gets frustrated when people don’t get the point. Can be intimidating and judgmental.
B. Assertive/Persuasive. Strong willed and ambitious but not overbearing. Uses persuasion rather than intimidation, and is willing to compromise to end long-running conflicts. Does well in conflict management.
C. Observant/Introspective. They listen (unemotionally) to the opponent’s view, analyze the situation and make a factual pitch for their case. But in the end they will defer to opponents in the interest of harmony.
D. Avoiding/Reactive. They avoid conflict and confrontation (suppress true feelings) to maintain peace at all costs.
E. NOTE: No one style of conflict management is better than another. Most people use all four, depending on the situation. But one style will be used more frequently due to one’s personality.
III. Discerning Positive Qualities Through Negative Traits (Bill Gothard—see Chart)
IV. Knowing Your Competence Level
A. General Thoughts. To meet changing times and demands one must grow and change to maintain competence. No growth means stagnation. Competence takes place mentally (change with the culture), physically (keep body/mind alert) and spiritually (acceptance of change consistent with the moral law of God as found in the Bible).
B. Definition of Competence. Competence is to have qualities and abilities to do a task. Competence must be defined on what one has done in the past and what needs to be done in the future. Competent people are capable in the job.
C. Evaluation of Competence. Evaluation is done by work accomplished through management skills—communication, delegating, planning, motivating, organizing, etc., and through technical areas—finances, computers, public relations, etc., and through spiritual areas—subjective but maturity and the fruit of the Spirit (attitude).
D. Enhancing Competence. A person cannot be competent in everything. You must know your own abilities (skills) and the requirements of the task. You must fit the job and the job must fit you.
E. Factors Affecting Competence. Over time you may change or the job may change. You must grow with the job and the organization.
F. Growth in Competence. You must accept yourself—strengths and weaknesses. You can never be satisfied—you must keep growing. You need constant evaluation of what you can and cannot do, and therefore, where lacking, a constant evaluation of what we need to learn.
G. Aids to Competence. You may want to work with a supervisor or a mentor. You may use continuing education—further schooling, seminars, field trips, etc. If you are not competent, you are incompetent.
V. Knowing Your Perseverance Level
A. Endurance. It is the power to undergo, tolerate, submit, to bear.
B. Perseverance. It is the steadfast pursuit of an aim; constant persistence. It is the ability to stick to something, to gut it out through trial and difficulty. Perseverance produces Christian character (James 1:12; Rom. 5:4; 2 Pet. 1:6; James 1:4).
C. Application. All Christians must persevere, but Christian leaders must persevere as an example to the flock. Priorities for a leader are: character, competence and concern for people. Perseverance is necessary in order for a person to maintain and improve his leadership role.
“Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with great talent. Genius will not, unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence, determination alone are omnipotent.” (Ray Kroc)